2017年职称英语综合类A级模拟练习题最新(五)-考职称网
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2017年职称英语综合类A级模拟练习题最新(五)

来源:考职称网 发布时间:2017-02-20

  为帮助广大考生顺利通过考试,考职称网为大家提供2017年职称英语综合类A级模拟练习题,希望对大家有所帮助:

  Why So Many Children? 为什么有这么多的孩子

In many of the developing countries in Africa and Asia , the population is growing fast . The reason for this is simple : Women in these countries have a high birth rate — from 3. 0 to 7. 0 children per woman . The majority of these women are poor , without the food or resources to care for their families .Why do they have many so children ? Why don’t they limit the size of their families ? The answer may be that they often have no choice . There are several reasons for this .

  非洲和亚洲的很多发展中国家,人 P 增长迅速。原因很简单:这些国家的女人生育率很 高——每个 女人平均有三个到七个孩子。这些女人大部分都很穷,没有足够的食物和资源来照顾家庭。为什么她们 要有这么多孩子呢?为什么她们不限制家庭的大小呢?答案是大多数时候她们 没办法选择。这有很多原因。

  One reason is economic . In a traditional agricultural economy , large families are helpful .Having more children means having more workers in the fields and someone to take care of the parents in old age. 1 In an industrial economy, the situation is different. Many children do not help a family ; instead, they are an expense. Thus, industrialization has generally brought down the birth rate. This was the case in Italy, which was industrialized quite recently and rapidly. In the early part of the twentieth century, Italy was a poor, largely agricultural country with a high birth rate. After World War Ⅱ, Italy's economy was rapidly modernized and industrialized. By the end of the century, the birth rate had dropped to 1. 3 children per woman, the world's lowest.

  其中之一是经济原因。传统的农业经济中,家庭成员数目多是十分有利的。孩子多意味着田里的劳 动力多且有人给父母养老。在工业经济国家中情况就不同了。多数孩子不帮助家里,而是 增加家庭开销。 因此,工业化极大降低了生育率。这是意大利的一个例子,意大利最近几年工业化发展十分迅速。在20 世纪前叶,意大利是个贫穷的农业国家,有着很高的生育率。第二次世界 大战之后,意大利的现代化和工业化十分迅速。世纪之末其生育率降到世界最低,平均每个女人 1. 3个孩子

  However, the economy is not the only important factor that influences birth rate. Saudi Arabia, for example, does not have an agriculture-based economy, and it has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. Nevertheless, it also has a very high birth rate (7. 0). Mexico and Indonesia, on the other hand, are poor countries, with largely agricultural economies, but they have recently reduced their population growth.

  然而经济并不是唯一重要的影响出生率的因素。以沙特阿拉伯为例,那里并没有以农业为基础的经 济,而且是人均收入最高的国家之一。然而还是有很高的生育率(7. 0)。而像墨西哥和印 度尼西亚,主要 是农业经济的穷国,但他们的人口还在不断地下降。

  Clearly, other factors are involved. The most important of these is the condition of women. A high birth rate almost always goes together with lack of education and low status for women. 2 This would explain the high birth rate of Saudi Arabia. There, the traditional culture gives women little education or independence and few possibilities outside the home . On the other hand, the improved condition of women in Mexico, Thailand, and Indonesia explains the decline in birth rates in these countries .Their governments have taken measures to provide more education and opportunities for women.

  很明显有其他的因素。最重要的就是妇女的状况。高的生育率往往与妇女缺乏教育与社会地位低下 相关。这就能解释沙特阿拉伯的出生率为什么如此之髙。传统的文化使妇女缺乏教育或者 不能独立,并 且在外生存的技能很少。相反,墨西哥、泰国、印度尼西亚的生育率就低。他们的政府给妇女提供更多的教育和机会。

  Another key factor in the birth rate is birth control. Women may want to limit their families but have no way to do so. In countries where governments have made birth control easily available and inexpensive, birth rates have gone down. This is the case in Singapore, Sri Lanka, and India, as well as in Indonesia, Thailand, Mexico, and Brazil. In these countries, women have also been provided with health care and help in planning their families.

  另一个重要的因素是计划生育。女人们也许想限制家庭的大小,但是她们没有办法。一些倡导计划 生育的政府为她们提供有效而且不贵的方式,生育率下降。比如新加坡、斯里兰卡、印度 和印度尼西亚、 泰国、墨西哥、巴西。在这些国家妇女被提供健康和计划生育的帮助。

  These trends show that an effective program to reduce population growth does not have to depend on better economic conditions. 3 It can be effective if it aims to help women and meet their needs. Only then, in fact, does it have any real chance of success.

  这些趋势表明有效的控制人口的方案并不依赖于良好的经济状况。如果是致力于帮助妇女适应她们 的需求那么就是有效的。事实上只有这样,才能有机会取得成功。

  词汇:

  industrialization n工业化

  possibility n可能性,可能发生的事物

  effective adj有效的,起作用的,实际的

  注释: 1. In a traditional agricultural economy, large families are helpful. Having more children means having more workers in the fields and someone to take care of the parents in old age. 传统的农业经济中,家庭成员数目多是十分有利的。孩子多意味着田里的劳动力多,且有人给父母养老。

  2. A high birth rate almost always goes together with lack of education and low status for women. 高的生育率往往与妇女缺乏教育与社会地位低下相关。

  3. These trends show that an effective program to reduce population growth does not have to depend on better economic conditions. 这些趋势表明有效的控制人口的方案并不依赖于良好的经济状况。

  练习:

  1. In a traditional agricultural economy, a large family_______.

  A. can be an advantage

  B. may limit income

  C. isn’t necessary

  D. is expensive

  1. A 本题的问题是:在传统的农业经济中,大家庭的影响是什么?从文中第二段第二句和第三句 话可以得出明确的答案。 In a traditional agricultural economy, large families are helpful. Having more children means having more workers in the fields and someone to take care of the parents in old age. 所以答案为 A,是优势。

  2. When countries become industrialized, _______.

  A. families often become larger

  B. the birth rate generally goes down

  C. women usually decide not have a family

  D. the population generally grows rapidly

  2. B 本题的问题是:当国家工业化后,人口和出生率的状况是什么?从第二段意大利的例子可以明确得出答案。In the early part of the twentieth century, Italy was a poor, largely agricultural country with a high birth rate. After World War Ⅱ, Italy's economy was rapidly modernized and industrialized. 由此可见出生率降低。

  3. According to this passage, Italy today is an example of an _______.

  A. agricultural country with a high birth rate

  B. agricultural country with a low birth rate

  C. industrialized country with a low birth rate

  D. industrialized country with a high birth rate

  3. C 本题的问题是:本文举出意大利的例子要说明什么?从第二段意大利的前后对比的情况可以看出正确答案为 C。

  4. Saudi Arabia is mentioned in the passage because it shows that _______.

  A. the most important factor influencing birth rate is the economy

  B. factors other than the economy influence birth rate

  C. women who have a high income usually have few children

  D. the birth rate depends on per capita income

  4. B 本题的问题是:文中提到沙特阿拉伯的例子说明了什么?由第三段开头可知,However, the economy is not the only important factor that influences birth rate. 下面将要介绍其他因素,之后以沙特阿拉伯为例。故正确答案为 B,经济以外影响出生率的因素。

  5. In Mexico, Thailand, and Indonesia, the government _______.

  A. is not concerned about the status of women

  B. has tried to industrialize the country rapidly

  C. does not allow women to work outside the home

  D. has tried to improve the condition of women

  5. D 本题的问题是: 墨西哥、 泰国、 印度尼西亚的政府采取了怎样的措施?从文中第四段后半部分On the other hand, the improved condition of women in Mexico, Thailand, and Indonesia explains the decline in birth rates in these countries. Their governments have taken measures to provide more education and opportunities for women. 可以得出结论。另一方面从第四段开头也可以得出结论。The most important of these is the condition of women. 之后举出这几个国家的例子,从而也可以得出结论。

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  2017年职称英语综合类A级模拟练习题最新(三)

  

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